在阿里云的CentOS环境中安装配置MySQL的教程 - PHPERZ中文资讯站 - 胜博发888手机平台

发布于 2016-03-11 06:14:11 | 211 次阅读 | 评论: 0 | 来源: 网友投递

这里有新鲜出炉的Mysql教程,程序狗速度看过来!

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这篇文章主要介绍了在阿里云的CentOS环境中安装配置MySQL的教程,注意一下文章开头所提到的系统自带MariaDB的问题,需要的朋友可以参考下

1 常规错误的yum安装方法:

在前文中记述了CentOS 6.5系统中通过yum方式快速地搭建了LNMP环境,那么是否也能在CentOS 7或CentOS 7.1系统中依葫芦画瓢安装MySql5.6.24呢?答案是否定的。


[[email protected] ~]# yum -y install mysql mysql-server mysql-devel
.....................。
....省略部分安装过程....
.....................。
Installed:
 mariadb.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0             mariadb-devel.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0            
Dependency Installed:
 keyutils-libs-devel.x86_64 0:1.5.8-3.el7 krb5-devel.x86_64 0:1.12.2-14.el7  libcom_err-devel.x86_64 0:1.42.9-7.el7 libselinux-devel.x86_64 0:2.2.2-6.el7 
 libsepol-devel.x86_64 0:2.1.9-3.el7   libverto-devel.x86_64 0:0.2.5-4.el7 openssl-devel.x86_64 1:1.0.1e-42.el7.4 pcre-devel.x86_64 0:8.32-14.el7   
 zlib-devel.x86_64 0:1.2.7-13.el7   
Complete!

从上面的安装结果可以看出,没有安装mysql数据库,而是安装了mariadb数据!因为在CentOS 7和CentOS 7.1系统中,默认安装的mysql是它的分支mariadb。这里引用下百度百科关于mariadb的描述:

MariaDB数据库管理系统是MySQL的一个分支,主要由开源社区在维护,采用GPL授权许可 MariaDB的目的是完全兼容MySQL,包括API和命令行,使之能轻松成为MySQL的代替品。
因此,下面这些正常的MySQL操作都是无效的:


#######无法把mysql服务加入系统启动
[[email protected] ~]# chkconfig mysqld on
error reading information on service mysqld: No such file or directory
#######启动不了mysql
[[email protected] ~]# service mysqld start
Redirecting to /bin/systemctl start mysqld.service
Failed to issue method call: Unit mysqld.service failed to load: No such file or directory.
#######没有安装mysql相关包
[[email protected] ~]# rpm -qa |grep mysql
php-mysql-5.4.16-23.el7_0.3.x86_64
[[email protected] ~]#

2 正确的安装方法:

众所周知,Linux系统自带的repo是不会自动更新每个软件的最新版本(基本都是比较靠后的稳定版),所以无法通过yum方式安装MySQL的高级版本。所以我们需要先安装带有当前可用的mysql5系列社区版资源的rpm包。


#######安装rpm包
[[email protected] ~]# rpm -Uvh http://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql-community-release-el7-5.noarch.rpm

Retrieving http://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql-community-release-el7-5.noarch.rpm
Preparing...       ################################# [100%]
Updating / installing...
 1:mysql-community-release-el7-5 ################################# [100%]

这时查看当前可用的mysql安装资源:


[[email protected] ~]# yum repolist enabled | grep "mysql.*-community.*"

mysql-connectors-community/x86_64 MySQL Connectors Community     14
mysql-tools-community/x86_64  MySQL Tools Community      17
mysql56-community/x86_64   MySQL 5.6 Community Server    139

从上面的列表可以看出, mysql56-community/x86_64 和 MySQL 5.6 Community Server 可以使用。

因此,我们就可以直接用yum方式安装了MySQL5.6版本了。


[[email protected] ~]# yum -y install mysql-community-server

Loaded plugins: axelget, langpacks
No metadata available for base
No metadata available for epel
No metadata available for extras
(Failed to load module fastestmirror: No module named fastestmirror)
repomd.xml                                  | 2.5 kB 00:00:00  
update mysql-connectors-community metadata successfully
(Failed to load module fastestmirror: No module named fastestmirror)
repomd.xml                                  | 2.5 kB 00:00:00  
update mysql-tools-community metadata successfully
(Failed to load module fastestmirror: No module named fastestmirror)
repomd.xml                                  | 2.5 kB 00:00:00  
update mysql56-community metadata successfully
No metadata available for updates
mysql-connectors-community                              | 2.5 kB 00:00:00  
mysql-tools-community                               | 2.5 kB 00:00:00  
mysql56-community                                | 2.5 kB 00:00:00  
(1/3): mysql-connectors-community/x86_64/primary_db                        | 7.3 kB 00:00:00  
(2/3): mysql56-community/x86_64/primary_db                          | 83 kB 00:00:01  
mysql-tools-community/x86_64/p FAILED           ==============================================  ] 19 kB/s | 92 kB 00:00:00 ETA 
http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-tools-community/el/7/x86_64/repodata/3301d2eb425f300dec5a46c4201d08f2cf9232a6-primary.sqlite.bz2: [Errno 12] Timeout on http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-tools-community/el/7/x86_64/repodata/3301d2eb425f300dec5a46c4201d08f2cf9232a6-primary.sqlite.bz2: (28, 'Operation too slow. Less than 1000 bytes/sec transferred the last 3 seconds')
Trying other mirror.
(3/3): mysql-tools-community/x86_64/primary_db                         | 15 kB 00:00:00  
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mysql-community-server.x86_64 0:5.6.24-3.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: mysql-community-common(x86-64) = 5.6.24-3.el7 for package: mysql-community-server-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: mysql-community-client(x86-64) = 5.6.24-3.el7 for package: mysql-community-server-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: perl(DBI) for package: mysql-community-server-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mariadb.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0 will be obsoleted
---> Package mysql-community-client.x86_64 0:5.6.24-3.el7 will be obsoleting
--> Processing Dependency: mysql-community-libs(x86-64) = 5.6.24-3.el7 for package: mysql-community-client-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64
---> Package mysql-community-common.x86_64 0:5.6.24-3.el7 will be installed
---> Package perl-DBI.x86_64 0:1.627-4.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: perl(RPC::PlServer) >= 0.2001 for package: perl-DBI-1.627-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: perl(RPC::PlClient) >= 0.2000 for package: perl-DBI-1.627-4.el7.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0 will be obsoleted
--> Processing Dependency: mariadb-libs(x86-64) = 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0 for package: 1:mariadb-devel-5.5.41-2.el7_0.x86_64
---> Package mysql-community-libs.x86_64 0:5.6.24-3.el7 will be obsoleting
---> Package perl-PlRPC.noarch 0:0.2020-14.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: perl(Net::Daemon) >= 0.13 for package: perl-PlRPC-0.2020-14.el7.noarch
--> Processing Dependency: perl(Net::Daemon::Test) for package: perl-PlRPC-0.2020-14.el7.noarch
--> Processing Dependency: perl(Net::Daemon::Log) for package: perl-PlRPC-0.2020-14.el7.noarch
--> Processing Dependency: perl(Compress::Zlib) for package: perl-PlRPC-0.2020-14.el7.noarch
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mariadb-devel.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0 will be obsoleted
---> Package mysql-community-devel.x86_64 0:5.6.24-3.el7 will be obsoleting
---> Package perl-IO-Compress.noarch 0:2.061-2.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: perl(Compress::Raw::Zlib) >= 2.061 for package: perl-IO-Compress-2.061-2.el7.noarch
--> Processing Dependency: perl(Compress::Raw::Bzip2) >= 2.061 for package: perl-IO-Compress-2.061-2.el7.noarch
---> Package perl-Net-Daemon.noarch 0:0.48-5.el7 will be installed
--> Running transaction check
---> Package perl-Compress-Raw-Bzip2.x86_64 0:2.061-3.el7 will be installed
---> Package perl-Compress-Raw-Zlib.x86_64 1:2.061-4.el7 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
Dependencies Resolved
=======================================================================================================================================================================
 Package           Arch       Version        Repository         Size
=======================================================================================================================================================================
Installing:
 mysql-community-client       x86_64       5.6.24-3.el7       mysql56-community       19 M
  replacing mariadb.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0
 mysql-community-devel       x86_64       5.6.24-3.el7       mysql56-community       3.4 M
  replacing mariadb-devel.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0
 mysql-community-libs       x86_64       5.6.24-3.el7       mysql56-community       2.0 M
  replacing mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0
 mysql-community-server       x86_64       5.6.24-3.el7       mysql56-community       58 M
Installing for dependencies:
 mysql-community-common       x86_64       5.6.24-3.el7       mysql56-community       256 k
 perl-Compress-Raw-Bzip2       x86_64       2.061-3.el7       base          32 k
 perl-Compress-Raw-Zlib       x86_64       1:2.061-4.el7       base          57 k
 perl-DBI          x86_64       1.627-4.el7       base          802 k
 perl-IO-Compress        noarch       2.061-2.el7       base          260 k
 perl-Net-Daemon         noarch       0.48-5.el7        base          51 k
 perl-PlRPC          noarch       0.2020-14.el7       base          36 k
Transaction Summary
=======================================================================================================================================================================
Install 4 Packages (+7 Dependent packages)
Total download size: 83 M
Downloading packages:
mysql-community-devel-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64.rpm                         | 3.4 MB 00:00:03  
mysql-community-client-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64.rpm                         | 19 MB 00:00:05  
mysql-community-server-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64.rpm                         | 58 MB 00:00:11  
mysql-community-libs-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64.rpm                         | 2.0 MB 00:00:02  
perl-DBI-1.627-4.el7.x86_64.rpm                             | 0 B 00:00:01 ... 
perl-DBI-1.627-4.el7.x86_64.rpm                             | 802 kB 00:00:00  
(1/6): perl-Compress-Raw-Zlib-2.061-4.el7.x86_64.rpm                       | 57 kB 00:00:00  
(2/6): perl-Net-Daemon-0.48-5.el7.noarch.rpm                         | 51 kB 00:00:00  
(3/6): perl-PlRPC-0.2020-14.el7.noarch.rpm                          | 36 kB 00:00:00  
(4/6): perl-Compress-Raw-Bzip2-2.061-3.el7.x86_64.rpm                       | 32 kB 00:00:00  
(5/6): perl-IO-Compress-2.061-2.el7.noarch.rpm                         | 260 kB 00:00:00  
warning: /var/cache/yum/x86_64/7/mysql56-community/packages/mysql-community-common-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64.rpm: V3 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 5072e1f5: NOKEY 00:00:01 ETA 
Public key for mysql-community-common-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64.rpm is not installed
(6/6): mysql-community-common-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64.rpm                       | 256 kB 00:00:01  
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                 388 kB/s | 692 kB 00:00:01  
Retrieving key from file:/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql
Importing GPG key 0x5072E1F5:
 Userid  : "MySQL Release Engineering <[email protected]>"
 Fingerprint: a4a9 4068 76fc bd3c 4567 70c8 8c71 8d3b 5072 e1f5
 Package : mysql-community-release-el7-5.noarch (installed)
 From  : file:/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
Warning: RPMDB altered outside of yum.
 Installing : mysql-community-common-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64                           1/14 
 Installing : mysql-community-libs-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64                           2/14 
 Installing : mysql-community-client-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64                           3/14 
 Installing : perl-Net-Daemon-0.48-5.el7.noarch                             4/14 
 Installing : 1:perl-Compress-Raw-Zlib-2.061-4.el7.x86_64                          5/14 
 Installing : perl-Compress-Raw-Bzip2-2.061-3.el7.x86_64                           6/14 
 Installing : perl-IO-Compress-2.061-2.el7.noarch                            7/14 
 Installing : perl-PlRPC-0.2020-14.el7.noarch                             8/14 
 Installing : perl-DBI-1.627-4.el7.x86_64                              9/14 
 Installing : mysql-community-server-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64                          10/14 
 Installing : mysql-community-devel-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64                           11/14 
 Erasing : 1:mariadb-devel-5.5.41-2.el7_0.x86_64                            12/14 
 Erasing : 1:mariadb-5.5.41-2.el7_0.x86_64                             13/14 
 Erasing : 1:mariadb-libs-5.5.41-2.el7_0.x86_64                            14/14 
 Verifying : perl-Compress-Raw-Bzip2-2.061-3.el7.x86_64                           1/14 
 Verifying : mysql-community-common-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64                           2/14 
 Verifying : mysql-community-devel-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64                           3/14 
 Verifying : mysql-community-client-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64                           4/14 
 Verifying : perl-PlRPC-0.2020-14.el7.noarch                             5/14 
 Verifying : mysql-community-server-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64                           6/14 
 Verifying : 1:perl-Compress-Raw-Zlib-2.061-4.el7.x86_64                          7/14 
 Verifying : mysql-community-libs-5.6.24-3.el7.x86_64                           8/14 
 Verifying : perl-Net-Daemon-0.48-5.el7.noarch                             9/14 
 Verifying : perl-DBI-1.627-4.el7.x86_64                              10/14 
 Verifying : perl-IO-Compress-2.061-2.el7.noarch                            11/14 
 Verifying : 1:mariadb-5.5.41-2.el7_0.x86_64                             12/14 
 Verifying : 1:mariadb-devel-5.5.41-2.el7_0.x86_64                            13/14 
 Verifying : 1:mariadb-libs-5.5.41-2.el7_0.x86_64                            14/14 
Installed:
 mysql-community-client.x86_64 0:5.6.24-3.el7   mysql-community-devel.x86_64 0:5.6.24-3.el7   mysql-community-libs.x86_64 0:5.6.24-3.el7   
 mysql-community-server.x86_64 0:5.6.24-3.el7   
Dependency Installed:
 mysql-community-common.x86_64 0:5.6.24-3.el7 perl-Compress-Raw-Bzip2.x86_64 0:2.061-3.el7 perl-Compress-Raw-Zlib.x86_64 1:2.061-4.el7 perl-DBI.x86_64 0:1.627-4.el7
 perl-IO-Compress.noarch 0:2.061-2.el7  perl-Net-Daemon.noarch 0:0.48-5.el7   perl-PlRPC.noarch 0:0.2020-14.el7   
Replaced:
 mariadb.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0     mariadb-devel.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0     mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0     
Complete!

3 MySQL安装完成后,进行相关配置

安装完MySQL后,需要进行一些基础配置工作:


#######安装成功后,将其加入开机启动
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl enable mysqld
#######启动mysql服务进程
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl start mysqld
#######配置mysql(设置密码等)
[[email protected] ~]# mysql_secure_installation

NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MySQL
  SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE! PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!
In order to log into MySQL to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user. If you've just installed MySQL, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.
Enter current password for root (enter for none): 
OK, successfully used password, moving on...
Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL
root user without the proper authorisation.

Set root password? [Y/n] y     [设置root用户密码]
New password: 
Re-enter new password: 
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
 ... Success!

By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for
them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.
Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y     [删除匿名用户]
 ... Success!
Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'. This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.
Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y  [禁止root远程登录]
 ... Success!
By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.
Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y   [删除test数据库]
 - Dropping test database...
ERROR 1008 (HY000) at line 1: Can't drop database 'test'; database doesn't exist
 ... Failed! Not critical, keep moving...
 - Removing privileges on test database...
 ... Success!
Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.
Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y   [刷新权限]
 ... Success!


All done! If you've completed all of the above steps, your MySQL
installation should now be secure.
Thanks for using MySQL!

Cleaning up...

4.可能有效的MySQL配置优化
在原始配置文件  /etc/my.cnf 基础上,在 [mysqld] 节内增加配置参数。实际应用中,请按硬件及负载酌情修改。


#add by feng 120418 --------------------------
#skip-locking
skip-name-resolve
skip-external-locking
key_buffer_size = 256M
#table_cache = 3072
table_open_cache = 3072
read_buffer_size = 2M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 2M
sort_buffer_size = 2M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 256M
thread_cache_size = 8
query_cache_size= 512M
query_cache_limit= 5M
tmp_table_size=1024M
max_heap_table_size=3000M
max_allowed_packet = 16M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 512M
innodb_log_file_size = 512M
innodb_additional_mem_pool_size=512M
innodb_log_buffer_size=64M
max_connections=2000
max_user_connections=800
join_buffer_size = 8M
open_files_limit = 65535
#tmpdir=/dev/shm
max_connect_errors=1000
#add by feng 120418 end ---------------------



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